Few days ago I launched simple low-traffic mailing list using naive /etc/aliases method, but got the following error:
<firstname.lastname@example.org> (expanded from <email@example.com>): host
mx.poczta.onet.pl[220.127.116.11] said: 554 5.7.1 <firstname.lastname@example.org>:=
Recipient address rejected: Spf check: fail (in reply to RCPT TO command)
If you think for a moment the reason for error it's obvious. My server tried to forward e-mail using original From address.Onet.pl checked TXT record (using SPF standard) for my server domain myserver.com and noticed it's not allowed to send e-mails from me.
In order to make things work properly one have to rewrite envelope From field properly. Mailing list managers usually do that properly (/etc/aliases is not enough).
Trac is an issue tracking system with integrated Wiki that is highly customisable and offers big flexibility. One can use it to handle software projects (but it's not the only application for such type of system).
Having correctly pre-packaged version for your operating system is an advantage – you can setup it more quickly by reusing predefined environment and matching software versions.
OS packages installation
First of all, let's install some basic OS packages on Debian wheezy.
# apt-get install apache2
# apt-get install trac
# apt-get install libapache2-mod-python
# apt-get install trac-wysiwyg
# apt-get install trac-subtickets
We have installed the HTTP server software, the trac itself (will all dependencies handled by OS packaing system), Apache2 module to run Python scripts server-side, wysiwyg plugin (sometimes it's just easier to edit tables in WYSIWYG mode) and subtickets capability (allows to make hierarchical tickets).
First question: why do you need local Debian-based install inside your Debian distro? Sometimes you want to check some experimental packages and don't want to break your base system or start some service in isolated environment without virtualisation effort. Then chroot comes as an effective solution for you!
First of all you have the debootstrap program that is used to do all the job you need:
sudo apt-get install debootstrap
Then you select your favourite distro version and download URL:
sudo debootstrap –arch i386 squeeze /home/debian-chroot http://ftp.debian.org/debian
And you jump to your newly-installed system:
sudo chroot /home/debian-chroot
And: voila! Done!
There are people who prefer bleeding-edge software versions, other prefer stability over new features. I'm an advanced Linux user, however I fall into the latter category of users. Recently I discovered my current mixed-version Ubuntu is not as stable as I would like and I decided to revert to older version of Ubuntu (lucid).
Debian apt system allows to set preferences for packages and this method can be used to downgrade packages. First of all you have to declare sources of software of desired distro (lucid) in my case:
$ grep ^deb /etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://pl.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid main restricted
deb http://pl.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid-updates main restricted
deb http://pl.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid universe
deb http://pl.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid-updates universe
deb http://pl.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid multiverse
deb http://pl.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid-updates multiverse
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu lucid-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu lucid-security universe
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu lucid-security multiverse
Then we can declare we prefer lucid even if current package in the system if newer:
$ cat /etc/apt/preferences.d/downgrade-to-lucid
Pin: release a=lucid
Pin: release a=lucid-updates
Pin: release a=lucid-security
As you can see I added updates and security source pacages into account to have such updates already in my system.
If you used to Debian you probably know that "dpkg-reconfigure locales" brings you locale selection tool. It's not the case for Ubuntu. How to replace Debian's behavior? Read below:
# grep pl_PL.UTF-8 /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED > /var/lib/locales/supported.d/local
# dpkg-reconfigure locales
Above example show how to add pl_PL.UTF-8 locale.